Booting is the process of starting a computer. It can be initiated by hardware such as a button press or by a software command. After it is switched on, a CPU has no software in its main memory, so some processes must load software into memory before execution.
Booting happens when you start the computer. This happens when we turned ON the power or the computer restarts. The system BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) makes the peripheral devices active. Further, it requires that the boot device loads the operating system into the main memory.
Steps of Booting
1. The Startup
It is the first step that involves switching the power ON. It supplies electricity to the main components like BIOS and processor.
2. BIOS: Power On Self Test
It is an initial test performed by the BIOS. Further, this test performs an initial check on the input/output devices, computer’s main memory, disk drives, etc. Moreover, if any error occurs, the system produces a beep sound.
3. Loading of OS
In this step, the operating system is loaded into the main memory. The operating system starts working and executes all the initial files and instructions.
4. System Configuration
In this step, the drivers are loaded into the main memory. Drivers are programs that help in the functioning of the peripheral devices.
5. Loading System Utilities
System utilities are basic functioning programs, for example, volume control, antivirus, etc. In this step, system utilities are loaded into the memory.
6. User Authentication
If any password has been set up in the computer system, the system checks for user authentication. Once the user enters the login Id and password correctly the system finally starts.
Types of booting
- Cold booting: When the computer starts for the first time or is in a shut-down state and switches on the power button to start the system, this type of process to start the computer is called cold booting. During cold booting, the system will read all the instructions from the ROM (BIOS) and the Operating System will automatically get loaded into the system. This booting takes more time than Hot or Warm Booting.
- Warm booting : Warm or Hot Booting process is when computer systems come to no response or hang state, and then the system is allowed to restart during on condition. It is also referred to as rebooting. There are many reasons for this state, and the only solution is to reboot the computer. Rebooting may be required when we install new software or hardware. The system requires a reboot to set software or hardware configuration changes, or sometimes systems may behave abnormally or may not respond properly. In such a case, the system has to be a force restart. Most commonly Ctrl+Alt+Del button is used to reboot the system. Else, in some systems, the external reset button may be available to reboot the system.